Tracking the relevant researches of CADD drug development against COVID-19
Glipizide is an oral hypoglycemic agent in the second-generation sulfonylurea drug class that is used to control blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was first introduced in 1984and is available in various countries including Canada and the U.S. According to the 2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines by Diabetes Canada, sulfonylurea drugs are considered a second-line glucose-lowering therapy following metformin.Because sulfonylureas require functional pancreatic beta cells for their therapeutic effectiveness, sulfonylureas are more commonly used for early-stage type 2 diabetes when there is no progressed pancreatic failure.Compared to the first-generation sulfonylureas, such astolbutamideandchlorpropamide, second-generation sulfonylureas contain a more non-polar side chain in their chemical structure, which enhances their hypoglycemic potency.Compared to other members of the sulfonylurea drug group, glipizide displays rapid absorption and onset of action with the shortest half-life and duration of action, reducing the risk for long-lasting hypoglycemia that is often observed with blood glucose-lowering agents.Glipizide was first approved by the FDA in 1994 and is available in extended-release tablets under the brand name Glucotrol®, as well as in combination with metformin under the brand name Metaglip®. [DrugBank]
ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 8 (Humans); Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Humans) [DrugBank]
Glipizide is a blood glucose-lowering agent. The initial onset of blood glucose-lowering effect occurs around 30 minutes post-administration with the duration of action lasting for about 12 to 24 hours.8 While the chronic use of glipizide does not result in elevations in the fasting insulin levels over time, the postprandial insulin response, or insulin response to a meal, is observed to be enhanced, even after 6 months of treatment.Label The main therapeutic actions of glipizide primarily occur at the pancreas where the insulin release is stimulated, but glipizide also mediates some extrapancreatic effects, such as the promotion of insulin signaling effects on the muscles, fat, or liver cells.9 Due to its action on the endogenous cells, sulfonylureas including glipizide is associated with a risk for developing hypoglycemia and weight gain in patients receiving the drug.5,6 Chronic administration of glipizide may result in down-regulation of the sulfonylurea receptors on pancreatic beta cells, which are molecular targets of the drug, leading to a reduced effect on insulin secretion.4 [DrugBank]
Tips: Click on the link to jump to the 'SwissTargetPrediction' webserver. Select the species of 'Homo sapiens', and then paste the SMILES of Glipizide in the SMILES input box.
Tips: Click on the link to jump to the 'CB-Dock' webserver. Upload the structure file of target predicted by 'SwissTargetPrediction' and the 2D/3D structure file of Glipizide to perform blind docking.