Tracking the relevant researches of CADD drug development against COVID-19
Oseltamivir (marketed as the product TamifluⓇ), is an antiviral neuraminidase inhibitor used for the treatment and prophylaxis of infection with influenza viruses A (including pandemic H1N1) and B. Oseltamivir exerts its antiviral activity by inhibiting the activity of the viral neuraminidase enzyme found on the surface of the virus, which prevents budding from the host cell, viral replication, and infectivity.The clinical benefit of use of oseltamivir is greatest when administered within 48 hours of the onset of influenza symptoms since effectiveness decreases significantly after that point in time; there is generally no benefit in use beyond 48 hours for healthy, low-risk individuals as influenza is a self-limiting illness.However, antiviral treatment might be beneficial when initiated after 48 hours for patients with severe, complicated or progressive illness or for hospitalized patients.According to the CDC, data from clinical trials and observational studies have demonstrated that early antiviral treatment can shorten the duration of fever and illness symptoms, and may reduce the risk of some complications (including pneumonia and respiratory failure). They recommend the use of oseltamivir in people with a higher risk of developing complications including children younger than 2 years, people over 65 years, people with some chronic conditions or immunosuppression, pregnant women, residents of long term care facilities, and indigenous communities for example.The benefits of oseltamivir use are controversial; a 2014 Cochrane Review of the evidence found that oseltamivir treatment had limited benefit. The authors concluded that oseltamivir use in healthy adults had small, non-specific effects on symptoms (where the time to first alleviation of symptoms was only reduced from 7 to 6.3 days), it had no effect on hospitalizations, and that there was no evidence for any reductions in complications of influenza such as pneumonia.Due to the risk of adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, psychiatric effects and renal adverse events in adults and vomiting in children, the harms are generally considered to outweigh the small clinical benefit of use of oseltamivir.Notably, in 2017, the World Health Organization downgraded oseltamivir from its essential medicines list from a "core" drug to a "complementary" drug, due to limited cost-effectiveness.Yearly vaccination with the influenza vaccine is still considered the best preventative measure. [DrugBank]
Neuraminidase (Influenza A virus (strain A/Chile/1/1983 H1N1)); Sialidase-1 (Humans); Sialidase-2 (Humans) [DrugBank]
There have been postmarketing reports of delirium and abnormal behavior leading to injury, and in some cases resulting in fatal outcomes, in patients with influenza who were receiving oseltamivir. Because these events were reported voluntarily during clinical practice, estimates of frequency cannot be made but they appear to be uncommon based on oseltamivir. These events were reported primarily among pediatric patients and often had an abrupt onset and rapid resolution. The contribution of oseltamivir to these events has not been established. Influenza can be associated with a variety of neurologic and behavioral symptoms that can include events such as hallucinations, delirium, and abnormal behavior, in some cases resulting in fatal outcomes. These events may occur in the setting of encephalitis or encephalopathy but can occur without obvious severe disease.21,13,14 [DrugBank]
Tips: Click on the link to jump to the 'SwissTargetPrediction' webserver. Select the species of 'Homo sapiens', and then paste the SMILES of Oseltamivir in the SMILES input box.
Tips: Click on the link to jump to the 'CB-Dock' webserver. Upload the structure file of target predicted by 'SwissTargetPrediction' and the 2D/3D structure file of Oseltamivir to perform blind docking.