Tracking the relevant researches of CADD drug development against COVID-19
Glecaprevir is a direct acting antiviral agent and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor that targets the the viral RNA replication. In combination withPibrentasvir, glecaprevir is a useful therapy for patients who experienced therapeutic failure from other NS3/4A protease inhibitors. It demonstrates a high genetic barrier against resistance mutations of the virus. In cell cultures, the emergence of amino acid substitutions at NS3 resistance-associated positions A156 or D/Q168 in HCV genotype 1a, 2a or 3a replicons led to reduced susceptibility to glecaprevir. The combinations of amino acid substitutions at NS3 position Y65H and D/Q168 also results in greater reductions in glecaprevir susceptibility, and NS3 Q80R in genotype 3a patients also leads to glecaprevir resistance.Glecaprevir is available as an oral combination therapy withPibrentasvirunder the brand name Mavyret. This fixed-dose combination therapy was FDA-approved in August 2017 to treat adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-6 without cirrhosis (liver disease) or with mild cirrhosis, including patients with moderate to severe kidney disease and those who are on dialysis. Mavyret is also indicated for HCV genotype 1-infected patients who have been previously treated with regimens either containing an NS5A inhibitor or an NS3/4A protease inhibitor, but not both. Hepatitis C viral infection often leads to decreased liver function and subsequent liver failure, causing a significantly negative impact on the patients' quality of life. The ultimate goal of the combination treatment is to achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) and cure the patients from the infection. In clinical trials, this combination therapy achieved SVR12 rate, or undetectable Hepatitis C for twelve or more weeks after the end of treatment, of ≥93% across genotypes 1a, 2a, 3a, 4, 5 and 6. [DrugBank]
NS3 protease (Hepatitis C Virus) [DrugBank]
In a biochemical assay studying clinical isolates of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a, glecaprevir displayed IC50 values ranging from 3.5 to 11.3 nM that resulted in inhibition of the proteolytic activity of recombinant NS3/4A enzymes. In HCV replicon assays, glecaprevir had median EC50 values of 0.08-4.6 nM against laboratory and clinical isolates from subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 4d, 5a, and 6a Label. In a QT study, glecaprevir is not shown to prolong the QTc interval. [DrugBank]
Tips: Click on the link to jump to the 'SwissTargetPrediction' webserver. Select the species of 'Homo sapiens', and then paste the SMILES of Glecaprevir in the SMILES input box.
Tips: Click on the link to jump to the 'CB-Dock' webserver. Upload the structure file of target predicted by 'SwissTargetPrediction' and the 2D/3D structure file of Glecaprevir to perform blind docking.