Tracking the relevant researches of CADD drug development against COVID-19
Ledipasvir is a direct acting antiviral (DAA) medication used as part of combination therapy to treat chronic Hepatitis C, an infectious liver disease caused by infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus that is categorized into nine distinct genotypes, with genotype 1 being the most common in the United States, and affecting 72% of all chronic HCV patients. Treatment options for chronic Hepatitis C have advanced significantly since 2011, with the development of Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) such as ledipasvir. More specifically, ledipasvir is an inhibitor of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Non-Structural Protein 5A (NS5A), which is required for viral RNA replication and assembly of HCV virions. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, it is postulated to prevent hyperphosphorylation of NS5A which is required for viral protein production. It is effective against genotypes 1a, 1b, 4a, and 5a and with a lesser activity against genotypes 2a and 3a of HCV. Ledipasvir and other direct acting antivirals are very potent options for the treatment of Hepatitis C, as they exhibit a high barrier to the development of resistance. This is an important advantage relative to HCV drugs that target other viral enzymes such as the protease, for which rapid development of resistance has proven to be an important cause of therapeutic failure.In a joint recommendation published in 2016, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommend ledipasvir as a first line therapy option in combination withsofosbuvirfor the treatment of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 4, 5, and 6. Treatment with ledipasvir is used with the intent to cure, or achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR), after 12 weeks of daily therapy. SVR and eradication of HCV infection is associated with significant long-term health benefits including reduced liver-related damage, improved quality of life, reduced incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and reduced all-cause mortality. Treatment with direct acting antivirals such as ledipasvir is associated with very minimal side effects, with the most common being headache and fatigue. Lack of significant side effects and short duration of therapy is a considerable advantage over older interferon- and ribavirin-based regimens, which were limited by infusion site reactions, reduced blood count, and neuropsychiatric effects.Since 2014, ledipasvir has been available as a fixed dose combination product withsofosbuvir(tradename Harvoni) used for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C. Approved in October 2014 by the FDA, Harvoni is indicated for the treatment of HCV genotypes 1, 4, 5, and 6 with or withoutribavirindepending on the level of liver damage or cirrhosis. When combined together, ledipasvir and sofosbuvir as the combination product Harvoni has been shown to achieve a SVR between 93 and 99% after 12 weeks of treatment. Its use has also proven successful in the treatment of HCV in patients co-infected with HIV. [DrugBank]
Nonstructural protein 5A (Hepatitis C Virus) [DrugBank]
Ledipasvir acts against HCV and is categorized as a direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA). [DrugBank]
Tips: Click on the link to jump to the 'SwissTargetPrediction' webserver. Select the species of 'Homo sapiens', and then paste the SMILES of ledipasvir in the SMILES input box.
Tips: Click on the link to jump to the 'CB-Dock' webserver. Upload the structure file of target predicted by 'SwissTargetPrediction' and the 2D/3D structure file of ledipasvir to perform blind docking.